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1 Deploying and confguring virtual machines on 13th October 2013, 12:58 am


If you have not finish reading previous post please goto following [url=Deploying and confguring virtual machines][/url]Link and download videos if you require video tutorials for Hyper-V Configuration.
After deploying and confguring your Hyper-V hosts, the next step in implementing your
  virtualization infrastructure is deploying and confguring the virtual machines that will be
used to virtualize your server workloads  This lesson helps you understand the issues and
  considerations involved in planning virtual machine deployment and how to create and
  confgure virtual machines. 
Planning virtual machine deployment
Depending on the scenario being envisioned, deploying a virtual machine can mean different
things, for example:
  ■ Creating a new virtual machine, and installing a guest operating system and
  applications on it
  ■ Importing an existing virtual machine that already has a guest operating system and
applications installed on it
  ■ Performing a physical-to-virtual (P2V) conversion of a physical server to migrate the
server’s operating system and applications into a virtual machine 
  ■ Performing a virtual-to-virtual (V2V) conversion by converting a VMware virtual
  machine to a Hyper-V virtual machine 
The frst two types of virtual-machine deployments can be performed using the in-box
management tools of the Hyper-V role of Windows Server 2012—specifcally, the Hyper-V
Manager and the Hyper-V module for Windows PowerShell  Deploying new virtual machines
by performing P2V or V2V conversions requires additional tools, such as System Center
  Virtual Machine Manager or third-party utilities 
The following issues should be considered when creating new virtual machines on a
Hyper-V host:
  ■ Location of confguration fles
  ■ Startup memory
  ■ Dynamic Memory
  ■ Virtual processors
  ■ Virtual networking
  ■ Virtual hard disks
  ■ Guest operating system deployment
  ■ Performing snapshots
Note that these issues apply mainly to the creation of new virtual machines  Importing
existing virtual machines entails a different set of conditions that are described separately
later in this section 
Location of confguration fles
Although the default location where virtual machine confguration fles is confgured at the
host level, you also have the option of overriding this default when you create a new virtual
machine  You might do this, for example, if you are creating a virtual machine for high avail-
ability—that is, a clustered virtual machine on a failover cluster of Hyper-V hosts that uses
CSV shared storage  In such a scenario, you need to specify the CSV under the ClusterStorage
folder in Failover Cluster Manager as the location where the virtual machine will be stored 
Another scenario where you might override the default confguration fle storage location
is when you are creating a virtual machine that will be stored on a SMB 3.0 fle share on a
  Scale-Out File Server. In this case, you would specify the client access point that is confgured
in the failover cluster for the Scale-Out File Server as the location where the virtual machine
will be stored  For an example of this second scenario, see 
Startup memory
The memory that each new virtual machine will need is an important consideration when
planning the creation of new virtual machines. Physical host systems have a fxed amount
of physical memory, and this memory must be shared in an appropriate way between the 
  different virtual machines that run on the host  (The host itself also requires some physical
memory in order to function with optimum performance ) Planning the amount of physical
memory to be allocated to a new virtual machine you will create involves two considerations:
  ■ Deciding upon the amount of startup memory to be assigned to the virtual machine 
The guest operating installed in a virtual machine must have access to suffcient
memory; otherwise, the virtual machine might not be able to start  The recommended
startup memory varies with the guest operating system involved and also on whether
Dynamic Memory is enabled on the host  Some recommended values for startup
memory include
  ■ 512 MBs for Windows Server 2008 R2 and Windows 7
  ■ 128 MBs for Windows Server 2003
  ■ Deciding whether to enable Dynamic Memory on the virtual machine  Dynamic
Memory manages physical memory on the host as a shared resource that can be
  automatically reallocated among running virtual machines based on changes in
memory demand and values you can specify  Dynamic Memory will be discussed in more
detail in later post.
Virtual processors
Some workloads can require additional processor resources in order to perform optimally 
Hyper-V allows you to assign one or more virtual processors to each virtual machine run-
ning on the host, up to the maximum number of logical processors supported by the guest
operating system installed in the virtual machine  You can also use Hyper-V to keep a reserve
of the processor resources available to a virtual machine, specify a limit to the amount of pro-
cessor resources the virtual machine can use, and confgure how Hyper-V allocates processor
resources when multiple running virtual machines on a host compete for the host’s processor
resources  For more information on resource control settings for virtual processors, see 
Virtual networking
Virtual networking involves creating virtual network adapters in virtual machines and
  assigning these adapters to virtual switches on the host  The following considerations apply
when planning virtual networking for virtual machines:
  ■ Each virtual machine can have up to 12 virtual network adapters installed in it  Of
these 12 virtual network adapters, up to 8 can be the network adapter type and up
to the 4 can be the legacy network adapter type  These two types of virtual network
adapters are discussed in more detail later in this lesson 
  ■ Each virtual network adapter can be confgured with either a static MAC address or a
dynamic MAC address that is automatically assigned from the confgured MAC address
range on the host
  ■ Each virtual network can be assigned a unique VLAN channel to segment or isolate
network traffc.
  ■ Up to 512 virtual machines can be assigned to each virtual switch on the host 
Virtual hard disks
When you create a new virtual machine, you have three options concerning the virtual hard
disks associated with the new virtual machines:
  ■ You can create a new virtual hard disk when you create the new virtual machine
  ■ You can assign an existing virtual hard disk to the new virtual machine you are
  ■ You can create a new virtual machine with no virtual hard disk and then assign a virtual
hard disk to it afterwards 
Another planning consideration concerning virtual hard disks is the type of storage con-
troller used for the disk  Virtual machines include both IDE and SCSI controllers, and you can
add virtual hard disks to either type of controller  And while the startup (boot) disk of a virtual
machine must be connected to the IDE controller, the underlying physical storage used for
the virtual IDE device can be any of the storage types described in the section titled “Storage”

Another planning consideration is the type of virtual disk to use—namely, one of the
  following  types:
  ■ Fixed-size  This type of virtual hard disk has its image fle pre-allocated on the
physical storage device for the maximum size requested when the disk is created  For
example, a 250-GB, fxed-size virtual hard disk will occupy 250 GBs of space on the
host’s storage device 
  ■ Dynamically expanding  This type of virtual hard disk uses only as much   physical
storage space as it needs to store the actual data that the disk currently contains 
The size of the virtual disk’s image fle then grows as additional data is written to it.
For   example, the image fle for a dynamic virtual hard disk of a newly created vir-
tual   machine that has no operating system installed on it has a size of only 4 MBs
even though its maximum size is confgured with the default value of 127 GBs. Once
  Windows Server 2012 has been installed as the guest operating system, however,
the size of the virtual disk’s image fle will grow to more than 8 GBs. See Lesson 3
in this chapter for information on how to expand, compact, or shrink dynamically
  expanding disks 
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2 Deploying and confguring virtual machines on 13th October 2013, 1:00 am


■ Differencing  This type of virtual hard disk allows you to make changes to a parent
virtual hard disk without modifying the parent disk  For example, the parent disk could
have a clean install of Windows Server 2012 as its guest operating system while the
differencing disk contains changes to the parent  The changes can then be reverted if
needed by merging the differencing disk with the parent  Hyper-V snapshots use such
differencing disk technology  

Some additional planning considerations relating to virtual hard disks include
  ■ Whether to use virtual hard disks that use the VHD disk format used by previous
versions of Hyper-V or the newer VHDX format introduced in Windows Server 2012 
Although the older VHD format supported virtual hard disks up to 2040 GBs in size,
the newer VHDX format now supports virtual hard disks up to 64 TBs in size  VHDX
also includes other enhancements, such as improved alignment to make the format
work well on large-format disks, larger block sizes for dynamic and differencing disks,
support for trim, support for 4-KB logical sector virtual disks, improved safeguards
against data corruption when power interruptions occur, and other features  For more
information on VHDX improvements, see
  ■ If the storage capacity provided by a single virtual hard disk is not suffcient for the
needs of the virtual machine’s workload, additional virtual disks can be created and
  attached to the virtual machine using the IDE controller, SCSI controller, or both
  ■ The maximum supported storage for a single virtual machine is 512 TBs for all types 
  ■ If your Hyper-V hosts are using a SAN for their storage, you can improve storage
performance by taking advantage of the new Offoaded Data Transfer (ODX) function-
ality included in Windows Server 2012  ODX can help minimize latency, maximize array
throughput, and reduce processing and network resource usage on Hyper-V hosts by
transparently offoading fle-transfer operations from the host to the SAN. For more
information, see 
  ■ If your virtual machines need to be able to access storage on a Fibre Channel SAN,
they can take advantage of the new virtual Fibre Channel feature of Windows Server 
2012 Hyper-V  This feature provides Fibre Channel ports within the guest operating
system so that you can directly connect virtual machines to SAN storage  The ben-
efts of virtual Fibre Channel include being able to virtualize workloads that require
direct SAN connectivity and being able to cluster guest operating systems over Fibre
  Channel  Implementing virtual Fibre Channel requires that the host bus adapter (HBA)
on the host have an updated driver that supports virtual Fibre Channel and that the
HBA ports be confgured with a Fibre Channel topology that supports N_Port ID
  Virtualization (NPIV)  For more information, see
Guest operating system deployment
Guest operating systems can be installed in virtual machines the same way they are installed
on physical systems  For example, you could do the following:
  ■ Manually install the guest operating system by attaching an ISO image of the product
media to the virtual machine’s virtual DVD drive, and then walk through the steps of
the installation process
  ■ Perform a Lite Touch Installation (LTI) deployment of the guest operating system by
booting the virtual machine from a server that has the Windows Deployment Services
role installed and then stepping through (or automating) the Windows Deployment
Wizard of Microsoft Deployment Toolkit (MDT) 2012 Update 1  For more information,
see Chapter 2 “Deploying servers” 
  ■ Perform a Zero Touch Installation (ZTI) deployment of the guest operating system by
using System Center 2012 Confguration Manager SP1 to deploy a reference image
created using MDT 2012 Update 1  For more information, see

Performing snapshots
Although snapshots are not recommended for use in production environments, they might
have value in certain limited scenarios  For example, you might consider performing a
snapshot of a production virtual machine just before you apply a critical software update to
the guest operating system of the virtual machine  That way, if something goes wrong after
  applying the update, you can quickly revert to the virtual machine to its previous state (that
is, before the update was applied)  However, there are certain scenarios where you should
never perform snapshots, specifcally:
  ■ Don’t perform snapshots on virtualized domain controllers 
  ■ Don’t perform snapshots on virtualized workloads that run time-sensitive services
  ■ Don’t perform snapshots on virtualized workloads that use data distributed across
multiple databases
Also, don’t try to restore snapshots older than 30 days because the computer password for
the guest operating system might have expired, which will cause the guest to dis-join itself
from the domain 
Finally, if you do plan on performing snapshots, make sure the host has suffcient storage
for all the snapshot fles you might create. Snapshots can consume a lot of disk space, and you
could end up running out of storage space if you perform too many of them 
Considerations for importing virtual machines
Although the process of importing an existing virtual machine onto a Hyper-V host has been
simplifed in Windows Server 2012, there are still a number of issues that should be consid-
ered before you perform the import  The following improvements have been made to the
virtual machine import process in Windows Server 2012:
  ■ The import process has been updated so that confguration problems that might
  prevent the import from being successful are detected and resolved  For example, if
you are importing the virtual machine onto a target host that has a different set of vir-
tual switches than those on the source host, the Import Virtual Machine Wizard, which
can be launched from Hyper-V Manager, now prompts you to choose a virtual switch
to connect to the virtual network adapter on the virtual machine 
  ■ Virtual machines can now be directly imported from the virtual machine’s
  confguration fle without frst exporting the virtual machine. This can be done by
manually copying the virtual machine fles instead of exporting them. In fact, when you
export a virtual machine in Windows Server 2012, now all that happens is that a copy
of the virtual machine’s fles is created. 
  ■ Hyper-V now includes Windows PowerShell cmdlets that can be used to export and
import virtual machines 
The following issues might be important to consider when planning the import of virtual
machines onto your hosts:
  ■ When you import a virtual machine, you have the choice of either of the following
  ■ Registering the virtual machine in-place, and assigning the GUID of the existing
  virtual machine to the new virtual machine (the default)  You can choose this   option
if the virtual machine’s fles are already in the location where they need to be in
order to run on the target host, and you just want to begin running the virtual
  machine from where it is located 
  ■ Restoring the virtual machine, and assigning the GUID of the existing virtual
  machine to the new virtual machine  You can use this option if the virtual machine’s
fles are stored on a fle share or removable storage device and you want to move
them to the default storage location on the target host

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3 Deploying and confguring Hyper-V hosts on 13th October 2013, 1:00 am


■ Copying the virtual machine, and generating a new GUID for the new   virtual
  machine  You can use this option if you want to use the existing virtual machine as a
template that you will be importing multiple times to create new virtual machines—
for example, for test or development work 
  ■ If you are migrating the virtual machines from a host running an earlier version of
Windows Server 2012, you can use the Compare-VM cmdlet to generate a compat-
ibility report that lists any incompatibilities that the virtual machine might have with
the target host  You can then use this report to take steps to resolve such issues so that
when you use the Import-VM cmdlet later, the import process will go smoothly 
  ■ If you are importing virtual machines from a nonclustered host to a clustered host,
there might be additional considerations, such as whether you need to import the
virtual machines to the shared storage used by the failover cluster  


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