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Q.1 Discuss the motives and objectives of organizations.

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SET1/Q.1 Discuss the motives and objectives of organizations. [10[quote][code]

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SET1/Q.1 Discuss the motives and objectives of organizations. [10]

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Ans.: An organisation (or organization — see spelling differences) is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, controls its own performance, and has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word itself is derived from the Greek word organon, itself derived from the better-known word ergon. There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including: corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and universities. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector, simultaneously fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. As a result the hybrid organization becomes a mixture of a government and a corporate organization.

In the social sciences,
organizations are the object of analysis for a number of disciplines, such as sociology, economics, political science, psychology, management, and organizational communication. The broader analysis of organizations is commonly referred to as organizational structure, organizational studies, organizational behavior, or organization analysis. A number of different perspectives exist, some of which are compatible:

From a process-related perspective, an organization is viewed as an entity is being (re-) organized, and the focus is on the organization as a set of tasks or actions.

From a functional perspective, the focus is on how entities like businesses or state authorities are used.

From an institutional perspective, an organization is viewed as a purposeful structure within a social context.

Sociology can be defined as the science of the institutions of modernity; specific institutions serve a function, akin to the individual organs of a coherent body. In the social and political sciences in general, an "organization" may be more loosely understood as the planned, coordinated and purposeful action of human beings working through collective action to reach a common goal or construct a tangible product. This action is usually framed by formal membership and form (institutional rules). Sociology distinguishes the term organization into planned formal and unplanned informal (i.e. spontaneously formed) organizations. Sociology analyzes organizations in the first line from an institutional perspective. In this sense, organization is a permanent arrangement of elements. These elements and their actions are determined by rules so that a certain task can be fulfilled through a system of coordinated division of labor.

An organization is defined by the elements that are part of it (who belongs to the organization and who does not?), its communication (which elements communicate and how do they communicate?), its autonomy (which changes are executed autonomously by the organization or its elements?), and its rules of action compared to outside events (what causes an organization to act as a collective actor?).

By coordinated and planned cooperation of the elements, the organization is able to solve tasks that lie beyond the abilities of the single elements. The price paid by the elements is the limitation of the degrees of freedom of the elements. Advantages of organizations are enhancement (more of the same), addition (combination of different features) and extension. Disadvantages can be inertness (through co-ordination) and loss of interaction.

Basically the basic objectives of the private organizations are to get the highest profit as much as they can get. The profit is the Earning before interest and tax. Taxes are government implemented therefore; private sector tries to give a great cushion against interest and tax. In an attempt to achieve this aim, the company in private sector produces where their total revenues are far higher than total costs. This creates high reserves for the stockholders.

This shows that private organizations have to fulfill the desires of the shareholders and it will always aim to fulfill their satisfaction. Another objective of private sector is to increase the market shares to get a sustainable competitive advantage. Companies in the private sector also want to improve their image by showing social responsibility. Moreover, private sector is more involved in sponsoring events because they know that such events can make their positioning and image better in the market.

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